Enjoy The Luxury Of Camper Shoes

Camper is a brand that is known internationally among those who pay attention to the fashion industry as a luxury brand due to the fact that spread out across top fashion conscious countries in Europe, Asia, and North America there are Camper restaurants, hotels, and more. Each of these brand genres prides itself in being able to deliver luxury to its consumers which is why it should come as no surprise that the brands foray into shoes has also been successful as they are some of the most luxurious and comfortable shoes that you will ever wear.

In fact, Camper shoes are known for the fact that they have special cushions built into the shoes that make them light weight so that lifting your feet feels like lifting a feather making it easy to exercise in the shoes or even run on a consistent basis in the shoes without ever feeling any muscle fatigue. For this reason it is very understandable why so many athletes are drawn to the range of shoes, because there simply is no other brand that can offer your feet such as luxurious experience while they are being exercised.

One of the reasons that Camper shoes are so light is because Camper chooses to only use the most top of the line materials to create the shoes making full use of quality materials such as leather and rubber that has helped make them one of the largest names in the footwear industry. In fact, every shoe in the brand undergoes a special stitching process so that the sole is carefully aligned with the leather that is used in the sole so that the shoe becomes quiet tough and sturdy and able to take on pretty much anything that you could through at it.

Also notable is the fact that Camper uses only a small amount of glue compared to other major shoe companies which means that they are also quite waterproof and durable. Therefore, although you may pay more upfront for a pair there is a good chance that they will hold up for years of hard exercise and outdoor hiking making them well worth their price tag. The shoes are even so highly waterproofed that you can wear them to run or walk through water without worrying about causing any damage to the actual shoe or causing it to start to dry rot.

With all of these features it is not surprising that the hallmark of Camper shoes is comfort, fashion, and aesthetics which is pretty much the most that you could expect out of any shoe. Therefore, instead of settling for just two of these components, or even worse just one, why not consider taking a look at what is available from the top of the line range and making an investment in a shoe that will last far past any other more midrange shoe so that you can experience true luxury in your day to day life at home.



7 Skills Needed to Be a Sport Marketing Director

There are many skills needed to be a successful marketing director in the sports world. After referencing some job descriptions and people in the sports industry, the seven skills I found to be most important are:

Organizational Skills- Must have strong ability to organize material and personnel while maintaining attention to detail.

Written/Oral Communication Skills- Effectively present information and answer questions from clients, managers and the general public. Also, the ability to persuade and listen to others ideas is essential.

Computer Skills- Should know how to use several different computer applications (i.e. internet, Excel, PowerPoint). Should be able to keep records and develop databases.

Creative Thinking- Must possess the ability to think “outside of the box” and keep marketing schemes constantly new and appealing. Develop new angles that produce favorable results.

Resistance to Stress- Must be able to stay composed and handle stressful situations. Marketing Director cannot get easily discouraged and must stay focused on the goals at hand.

Highly Motivated- Must have a desire to improve team/company to its full potential. Must be able to keep clients happy and go the extra mile to ensure satisfaction and complete tasks efficiently.

Leadership- Must be able to effectively lead a team/group to achieve goals. Even when authority to lead is not granted, a marketing director should be able to persuade and negotiate in order to successfully accomplish a task.

These seven skills are vital to a marketing director’s success and should be strived for in the learning process of becoming a marketing director. As a marketing director in the fast paced world of sports, he/she should also be able to adapt to the ever-changing trends of the market and be able to learn quickly.



Decorate With Sports Art

Decorating with sports art is an ideal way to show your enthusiasm for your home team or favorite player! Sports art can give your sports themed room a finished and sophisticated look. Your man cave can be decked out in no time with a few well placed autographed fine art prints or canvas giclees.

Theme rooms have always been popular in decorating and today they are an easy answer for those who struggle with how to decorate a room. At times a spouse may have different ideas for that rec room or man cave but once you both settle on a sports theme it becomes easy. Easier yet if you both are rooting for the same teams! You love team A and she loves team B? No Problem! Nothing wrong with some good natured competition. Perhaps a line down the middle or ‘end zone’ is in order? Each gets a side to decorate as they see fit? Family and friends will have to choose sides when you are entertaining in your newly decorated sports room or man cave!

A line down the middle with opposing team colors sounds to chaotic? That may be so, but decorating need not be difficult. Decorating with a sports themes make choosing colors easy! Simply pick your favorite teams colors and use them on the walls, pillows, covers for bar stools or drapes! Now if you have a spouse who is bold enough to root for that ‘other’ team maybe a neutral color will be in order and simple highlights of favorite team colors will be quite enough.

Autographed sports art can be a good investment as well as being great image of a beloved player. Even for a child’s room a fine art print or canvas giclee will last them a lifetime and be a possible investment for the future. An autographed fine art print is not a sports collectible that mom can inadvertently toss out either! We all have heard the stories of autographs that go for big money years down the road, no guarantees but there is that possibility. If you are purchasing for the investment sake, make sure your autograph is the real thing! Professional sports artists prints and canvas giclees should come with a certificate of authenticity and a photograph or video of the athlete signing the piece and be licensed by the NFL or MLB if football and baseball are your sports of choice. An autograph while a player is young or before he is traded can often be worth more in the secondary market in the years to come. Some players severely limit their autograph sessions or price themselves out of the market with outlandish signing fees when they become the next superstar.

A professionally framed fine art sports piece will give your room that final finished look. A fine art sports print can give the room an air of sophistication while keeping the sports theme both fun and elegant. If you have chosen to keep your room more neutral in color you can still bring in colors of the favorite team with matting choices when framing. A double mat can give you many options even for those who are a bit more timid with color. Using the second or inside mat can give a ‘reveal’ of the team color for a more subdued look. Though canvas prints are usually more expensive, canvas giclees that are gallery wrapped do not necessarily need to be framed and there can be a cost savings by not framing a canvas print.

It depends on the look you are after when deciding on a print or canvas giclee. Framed and matted art is more traditional but often a canvas giclee can look like an original painting without the price tag of an original. Have fun decorating your sports room or man cave! You have a lot of future seasons and memories with family and friends in that room! Make it special with fine art sports prints on your wall.



Sports Betting Tips – How to Bet on Futures

You may or may not have already learned that future bets are wagers placed far in advance of a sporting event after reading our Overview of Sports Gambling Bet Types. The basics are all there, so the purpose of this article is to explain why futures offer such strong value and give tips on improving your chances to win when betting futures.

The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting when oddsmakers first release them or well before an event is decided. For example, placing a future wager on the Kentucky Derby a month ahead of time can get you a much better price on a horse than betting much closer to the race when the real contenders are revealed for all to see. Future odds are not set and can be adjusted by sportsbooks periodically, but the odds at the time of your wager are the odds you are locked into.

A futures bet example with major team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts. An NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason, but by midseason, those odds might decrease to 10/1 if the team turns out to be a legitimate championship contender.

It’s important to note that sportsbooks can change futures at any time, and they are available to be bet all the way until the event gets underway. Future bets are also not restricted to the championship game, as you can bet on who will win a conference or division too.

Future bets in NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball are team-oriented in that you bet on the team’s performance while proposition bets on non-team future events that involve individuals like boxing, tennis, golf and NASCAR are also available. Keep in mind that with futures you are always betting that the event will happen, on whether the team will accomplish something such as a championship and not against their chances of doing so. For example, if Duke is 5/1 to win the NCAA Basketball Championship, you can bet $100 on Duke and will win $500 if they win it all – but with standard future betting you cannot bet against Duke winning it all.

Tips to Win

The key to betting futures is realizing their true value and using the right Tips to Win. The most important consideration is determining what changes a team has made to enhance their chances of vying for a championship like the Super Bowl or World Series. Draft choices, coaching changes, free-agent signings, trades and returning starters all impact a team’s ability to compete, so each aspect should be considered when making your future bet.

The Draft

The draft is a much bigger factor in NBA basketball and NFL football since a rookie can approach superstar status much earlier (i.e. LeBron James) than other sports like MLB baseball where it can take years for players to develop. Of course the way the drafts are structured, the weaker teams almost always select players higher than the stronger teams. However, elite teams like the San Antonio Spurs and New England Patriots are well-known for making the most of their picks despite poor draft positioning.

Player Movement

Nothing has changed the landscape of sports over the past 20 years more than free agency. Superstars like Shaquille O’Neal can simply walk away at the end of their contracts, forcing their teams to decide the likelihood of their re-signing and potentially trading them before their contracts are up to get something in return.

O’Neal is a perfect example to examine since he left the Orlando Magic as a free agent to join the Los Angeles Lakers in 1996, leaving the Magic with nothing in return. Eight years later, he forced the Lakers to trade him to the Miami Heat so the Lakers could get something in return while he was still under contract since he made it known he would not re-sign with them.

O’Neal’s status changed the balance of power between the Eastern and Western Conference in both situations, with the Heat becoming serious title contenders in his first year with the team. A smart NBA futures bettor would have put money on the Heat to win the NBA title or Eastern Conference right after the trade was made.

In NBA basketball and MLB baseball, the midseason trade deadline could also be very critical to a team’s improvement. The New York Yankees tried very hard to yank ace pitcher Randy Johnson from the Arizona Diamondbacks at the 2004 deadline and probably would have won the World Series if they had done so. Instead, they were forced to wait until the offseason to make the trade for Johnson and didn’t have enough pitching to get past the Boston Red Sox, who went on to win the World Series.

In college football and basketball, there is the added dimension of a team’s returning starters. Graduation or early defection of players to the pros play a critical role in the team’s makeup for the next season and should be examined. However, while losing a Heisman Trophy winner like quarterback Carson Palmer in 2003 seemed to be a blow to USC’s chances of winning a national title, it also allowed another Heisman Trophy winner to shine in Matt Leinart, so not all losses hurt an NCAA program.

Timing is everything with player movement. Sometimes these moves pay off, sometimes they don’t, but they often seem to give teams a fighting chance in bettor’s minds and make future bets more interesting.

Coaching Moves

The Tampa Bay Buccaneers made big news during the 2002 offseason when they pried Jon Gruden away from the Oakland Raiders to be their head coach. Tampa Bay management felt like they had the right players in place and just needed the right person to put all the pieces together and lead the way.

After a series of hiring mishaps, including the failed recruitment of coaching legend Bill Parcells, Gruden turned out to be their man and proved to be the difference. It wasn’t cheap since it cost the Buccaneers a number of draft picks and money, but nobody could argue it wasn’t worth the price when they won their first Super Bowl. The best futures price on the Bucs turned out to be before the regular season started and the full impact of Gruden was felt in Tampa and throughout the rest of the NFL.

Measuring True Value

Once you put all of the Tips to Win together, you need to try to measure the true value of a team’s future bet chances. But your perception of how well a team will perform and how you interpret the significance of the Tips to Win will determine whether or not a team is worth betting on.

Sometimes a team comes along like the 1999 St. Louis Rams, who won the Super Bowl that year despite entering the season as a longshot at incredible 200/1 odds. When such longshots come in it demonstrates another strong appeal of future bets, that a fan can make a small bet on a longshot, enjoy following their results all season, and just maybe cash a huge ticket! A safer approach is to pick a playoff team or one that just missed out from the previous year and made some smart moves to turn them into a contender.

Betting the preseason favorite like last year’s champs is a bit risky since their odds are already so low and a lot more money would need to be wagered to make it worthwhile. However, there is still some value in instances like this if you feel strongly that they can go deep into the playoffs again. The further they go, the smaller their odds will likely get along the way and the more value you will have by betting far in advance.

That’s the bottom line with any futures bet – the true value comes down to how you feel about a team compared to the oddsmaker’s projections. If your Tips to Win point to a team worth betting on and that team ultimately follows through, you’ll have a rooting interest all season long and will get the very most out of your futures wager!



Tips for Wearing Socks With Low Top Shoes

Stepping into July, the skies are clear, the days are warm and the nights are comfortably cool, it is the perfect time to bring out your loafers, vans, sneakers or whatever it is.

Somebody doesn’t like wearing socks with their low top shoes. Indeed, wearing long socks with these shoes together with short pants always looks a bit odd unless you want to feel playful or get the retro prep look. In this case, the style, pattern and the color of the socks play an important role, either you are real good at it or it can be a disaster. Always beware of long socks in white, which are normally for sports games or gym, think twice before you put them on with your low top shoes.

Then what about entirely sock less with these shoes? Your feet get sticky and smelly quite quickly. Wearing socks helps reduce bacterial buildup on the feet and prevent calluses. If you are wearing a new pair of shoes without socks, they give you blisters on each foot right below the ankle. Also, socks reduce pressure and soreness. Without wearing socks, your feet hurt and get tired after sometime.

The best solution is to get a pair of super low cut socks. They provide the comfort and sweat-absorption properties of a normal sock, but leave your ankles nicely exposed to the cool air. These socks give that barefoot appearance, sit low on your ankle and just barely above your shoes, so they will not reveal for low top shoes.

But be careful when buying the invisible socks. The problem with some of these socks is that they look like ballerina shoes. These kinds of socks are truly invisible on shoes but easy slip due to too low cutting of the sock heel. Sock slippage can be very annoying. And some of them claim they are no show socks but still show due to their ankle height cutting design.

A pair of good super low cut socks should be tightly fit, super comfortable, non slip and non bulky, which do not wrinkle up inside your shoes. Just showing a bit of sock around the edges is not the end of the world. A pair of dark color sock will help. The most important thing is to choose a pair of sock that suits you, your shoes and your personal style.

So are your ready wearing your low top shoes with the no socks look?



Shaq Shoe Size – What’s Shaquille O’Neal’s Shoe Size?

Shaquille O’Neal is more often known simply as ‘Shaq’, the basketball player who is famous across the world and one of the most renowned players in the United States. He is well known for his large size and people often ask what his shoe size is.

Shaquille O’Neal has a shoe size of 22 but he is 7 feet and 1 inch tall and weighing 325 pounds, he makes a perfect basketball player. Even many of the world’s other basketball players who are also popular are relatively dwarfed by him.

Some people put Shaquille O’Neal’s shoe size to be as great as 23 but is generally considered to be 22. The currently plays for the team known as the Cleveland Cavaliers although he has played with a number of teams over the impressive stretch of his career.

He has earned a number of achievements throughout his extensive career and is currently earning a salary of twenty one million dollars with the Cleveland Cavaliers. He also appeared with his past team, the Los Angeles Lakers, with which she won three NBA world championship awards, at the White House with George Bush.

His other and most recent NBA world championship award occurred in 2006 when he was playing with the team Miami Heat.

Shaquille O’Neal has also participated in a number of other ventures throughout his career. He is also into rap music and has released five studio albums plus a compilation album. On top of he has appeared in a number of reality television shows and various other programs on the TV. He has also dabbled in the world of martial arts and even got involved in law enforcement. Reportedly, he also asked for a role in the hit film X-Men but this was apparently turned down. His image is also appeared on the covers of numerous basketball video games.



8 Reasons to Avoid Extreme Sports

People advertise extreme sport events and courses like it’s something safe and cool you want to do. Ha! But it’s not! It’s not like learning to play chess or watching a cool movie, not at all.

Here is why:

1. You can get injured or die.

It may sound very convincing that the rate of people who die in car accidents is higher than the rate of those who die from parachute jump. But no matter what stats they show you, the truth is one – you can die or at least get seriously injured when practicing extreme sports. It happens all the time.

And you know of course, those who don’t do such stupid things live forever.

2. It will cost you money.

Every extreme sport requires some equipment. For some sports like skateboarding it’s cheaper, for some like scuba diving it’s more expensive – but without exception, practicing extreme sports will cost some of your hard earned money.

Isn’t it much better idea to spend your money on fashion branded t-shirts or cool tech gadgets?

3. It takes time.

More often than not practicing an extreme sport requires you to go to a special place somewhere (water, mountain, hill). It takes time to get there, it takes time to practice, it takes time to get back home, it takes time to take rest. Sometimes the extreme sport can occupy all your free time.

Isn’t this sad? You could use this time for such great activities like playing video games instead.

4. Your career may suffer.

The extreme sport will not only occupy your time – it will occupy your brain too. You will think about it, about the good time, about the next good time you’ll do it. This often kills motivation at work and makes you only wait till the end of the work day.

It’s so much better to be a good employee, grow in career and get good stable salary!

5. You may fall in love.

There are two ways you may fall in love – first, you may, and most probably will, fall in love with the extreme sport you are doing. This is so bad because of the reason already mentioned. Second, you may fall in love with some of your partners, a trainer or instructor.

What an uncomfortable situation, it’s much better to stay in your comfort zone and avoid falling in love with crazy things.

6. You will feel bad at the times when you can’t practice.

You’ll miss your extreme sport when you are at work, when you are far away from appropriate place, when you have no time or money, when the weather is not good… You’ll miss it all the time. And missing something hurts, believe me.

Life is a lot more painless when you have nothing to miss and nothing to lose, isn’t it?

7. Your old friends will think you are crazy.

I bet they will. Imagine how they’ll look at you when you tell them you won’t join the Friday party because you have to raise up early and go to skydive. They’ll think you’re fool. Many of them will be bored when you excited tell them about your latest achievement in mountain biking. Some will even feel bad when you become more fit as a result of the extreme sport.

And just think a minute about the moment when you get some injury. “I told you so, I told you so!”.

8. You will lose interest in some regular activities

Practicing an extreme sport will brainwash you so much that you may stop being interested in some regular activities you enjoy now. It’s not just work. You will stop being interested in cool things like watching TV shows, playing video games, and even doing funny tests in Facebook.

Can you imagine this? Horrible!



Sports Betting – What’s the Deal?

There is nothing, it seems, quite as natural to human beings as betting is. Betting has been a part of human culture on every continent on Earth. From the Natives of North America to China and everywhere in between, placing a wager on the outcome of a game has been a part of sports life.

Sports betting continues to be a big part of our culture today. Just as in times past, there is not a single sport you can name that doesn’t have some kind of betting audience. Proponents of sports betting say that it is a harmless way to add a little fun to the game. Even if you have never been to a bookmaker, odds are that you have made some kind of wager on a sports event. It might be a fantasy pool, it might just bet for a beer with a buddy, but you have been drawn by the appeal of making a correct prediction.

For some people, sports betting is more than just a way to spice up a favorite past time; it is big business. All over the world, bets are placed on lacrosse, cricket, football, soccer, baseball, and every other sport you can name. Some people win big, some people win consistently, but it’s always the books that come out on top. Let’s take a deeper look at what sports betting is all about, and some of the burning questions people have on the topic.

Is sports betting legal?

One of the biggest questions surrounding sports betting is whether or not the activity is legal. The fact is that in many parts of the world, sports betting is legal. Most of Europe and Asia regulate sports betting quite heavily, but bettors can place their wagers without fear of legal reprisals.

North America is a different story. In Canada and the United States, wagering on sports is only actually allowed in four states: Nevada, Delaware, Montana, and Oregon. Of these, only Nevada actually allows sports gambling outfits to operate.

Now, this does not necessarily mean that North Americans are out of luck if they want to wager on a game. The Internet has opened up a wide range of opportunities for residents west of the Atlantic to places bets on sports, although they must do so through books operated in an area where sports gambling is legal. Even so, the status of those operations is a little bit shady.

How does sports betting work?

Official sports bets, those which take place through bookies rather than buddies, are carefully measured odds offered by shrewd business number crunchers. Whether we are talking about Las Vegas or Beijing, you can be sure that the books are one step ahead of your average bettor when it comes to wagering.

This is not to say that you don’t stand a chance of winning when you place a bet, because one of the appeals of laying a wager on a sports event is that victory is equal parts knowledge and luck (as opposed to casino wagering, which is pretty much just luck no matter what Charlton Heston has to say!).

The sports books offer several different kinds of bets, all of which are designed so that the book itself makes a profit no matter the outcome of the event. That profit is known as the vigorish (vig for short). It’s usually around $10, paid by the person who loses the wager.

Generally, bettors will select one of two options when wagering on a sports event. The first is the money line, in which a straight up win by the team picked will result in money returned to the bettor. They look like this, in a

baseball game:

Chicago White Sox -200

New York Yankees +150

That example tells us two things. First of all, the White Sox are the favorites. That’s indicated by the negative sign. If you bet the Sox, then you have to put down $200 in order to win $100. That’s the second thing the example shows us; the amounts indicate how much you win if the team you select comes out on top. For the Yankees, the underdogs, you only have to pay $150 to get a shot at that hundred bucks. But, of course, the Yankees will have to win!

The other kind of wager made on sports is the spread. Here, bookmakers will offer bettors a chance to win even if the team they bet on loses. Here’s a look at how spreads are expressed:

Chicago Bulls -10

Denver Nuggets

Once again, the negative sign indicates that the Bulls are the favorite. However, in this case, a bettor wagers not on just who will win, but by how much. If you were to bet on the Bulls and they won, but only by 8, you would still lose the bet. The Bulls have to win by more than 10 points if a bet on them is to return money. Conversely, you could bet on the underdog Nuggets and still win if the team loses by less than 10 points.

So that’s a brief introduction to some of the basic points of sports betting. Read some more of our articles in order to get a more in depth understanding of what sports betting is all about!



October Years

It seems like it was only yesterday but, it was only just this morning when I looked into the mirror to my dismay I really have gotten old and gray. Never in my wildest imagination would I have ever thought I’d be looking at this old man staring back at me. To my chagrin I am just a shell of the person I used to be. With white hair sprouting out of almost everywhere it is still amazing that I remember where my teeth just happen to be.

For all of us that have reached that milestone, the golf cart reality the world today is not what I’d thought it would be. Sure, there are advantages when one reaches this plateau. Being a long standing member of a retirement community should bring some kind of comfort. But, as I look around it is as though I am a stranger to the existence of things all around. I find myself living in a world filled with too much hate and vile contempt for man and nature where whole populations continue to languish in desolation, despair and woe. The wonton greed of a few amidst the multitudes of impoverished have only created distention, animosity, and a foreboding sense toward the future for way too many. Countries like Syria, Libya, the Sudan, Afghanistan, and so many other places around the globe are a tempest of plight, misery, and terror. All the inadequacies that prohibit the harmony of man continues to invest every corner of the world. Even in the United States countless millions continue to linger in false hope of salvation from being so destitute.

Not since the Dark Ages has mankind been so riddled with the vastness of injustices and inequality among men. When man rises above all adversity that prohibits his upward mobility in a society are only to be thrown back by events and circumstances beyond their control. Many instances like what occurred in 2008 when the financial industry was falling victim to their own greed. Since then more terror has struck not only from man but the wrath of nature has hit all across the land. The crisis in the Mid-East, the terror in France and so many other attacks it seems as though our world will no longer last.

What has happened since I was a lad? As a young man just starting out the future looked bright indeed. A professional career where the thrill of competitive sport where just playing the game was the only thing that really mattered. Now, we are in a world dominated by the love of money where greed takes over the actions of so many. Oh how I long for the days of old where the simplicity of life was a wonder to behold. But, in the midst of so much terror and woe the world today has truly lost its way. It is not just people of my generation but everywhere I turn too many are helpless finding it most hopeless to find a better way.

Now, with the current travesties occurring concurrently all around the globe continue in accelerating mankind’s inequality. The factions in play here and abroad have fractured what little hope there was for unity of purpose. Where peace and harmony would overwhelm the evil intent of others. But, all too often the greed of man overtakes the will of emotions to do what is good. The dominance of force to wield control continues to assault the virtue of man. They seek to strangle the liberties of all. Imposing a doctrine of hate and scorn it is as though much of the world really has turned black. The sanctity of life is lost in the foray. The blatant disregard for a brotherhood of man has swept across this world of ours where in as instant we will find ourselves thrust back into the caves of the Neanderthal. Never giving a thought of what would happen the stage is now set for the inferno to unfold.

It is those in our world today who have an unquenching thirst for power and control. Their actions of terror that have struck almost everywhere have left a trail that has been easy to follow. And yet, the power brokers seem unfit to act decisively and with unity of purpose to rid the scourge of terror that has infected our world. Too many lives are lost and too many dreams are shattered while the world slips away. I’d never would have thought my existence would be witness to so much misery and decay. Most of us though are powerless to act. We are just bit players that are caught up on the stage. With the curtain coming down on this the October of my years. I am often reminded of what Dr. Martin King said in a speech so long ago. His dream as well as mankind’s is more elusive now than ever. Will we get to that promise land? That remains one of the biggest questions left unanswered. In this the 21st century and the October of my years there still lies a cautious promise of a better future. With forethought for all and malice toward none that better future just maybe at hand.



A Look at Viewfinders

Frame finders

Many vintage cameras had some sort of simple rectangular frame to show the approximate size and location of the image captured by the camera’s lens. The frame finder often comprised nothing more than a bent piece of wire. The disadvantage of such a simple frame finder is that it can be very inaccurate: what you see varies according to the angle and distance at which you peer through it.

Sports finders

More sophisticated frame finders consisted of two frames, a smaller one nearer the eye and a larger one further away. The user has to sight the image to be photographed by centring the smaller frame within the larger one, and the larger rectangle gives an indication of what would be included in the shot. The sports finder is fast to use, with good visibility around the edge of the frame, and allows the image to be seen at its natural scale. The sports finder is good for press applications, and following fast action, but is only moderately accurate. The problem sports finders raise is that the rear frame (ocular) is out of focus when the eye is adjusted for distant subjects. However, by contrast optical viewfinders of the time produced a very small an image, which was difficult to work with when scenes contained movement. The sports finder was good enough to remain in production on some types of camera until recent times (e.g. modern underwater cameras).

Brilliant finders

The brilliant finder combined a mirror at a 45-degree angle between two lenses positioned at 90 degrees to each other. Brilliant finders are usually very small (about 1cm across), viewed from above, and provide as image that is reversed left to right, making them difficult to use. Nevertheless, they were very common.

A special version was of the Brilliant finder was the Sellar finder, which consisted just of a concave mirror with a targeting aid, to help the user position their eye to give the correct view.

Newton finder

A development of the frame/sports finder was the Newton finder. This has a single negative (plano-concaved) lens in the front frame, and a targeting aid near the user’s eye. The negative lens reduces the size of the scene viewed, allowing the front frame to be smaller (but it’s hard for people who are long-sighted to use it).

Telescopic finders

While still comprising a set of frames projecting from the camera, telescopic finders combined a negative lens at the front with a positive lens as the eyepiece. This arrangement is a reversal of Galileo’s telescope, and therefore sometimes called the reverse Galilean viewfinder. Like the Newton finder, they give an image of reduced size.

Albada finders

This development of the reverse Galilean finder has a half-silvered rear face to the front lens, which reflects an image of a set of frame-lines, painted around the surround of the eyepiece lens. The user sees the frame-lines superimposed upon the scene (creating an illusion that the frame-lines are further away). When camera designs began to enclose viewfinders within the body of the camera, this system didn’t work so well, leading to the development of the bright frame finder.

Bright frame finders

In this system, a bright frame is shown in a telescopic viewfinder by placing a half-silvered mirror in the finder, at an angle to reflect frame lines at the side, which is illuminated by light from a translucent panel on the camera front (often placed next to the viewfinder).

Keplerian viewfinders

Keplerian viewfinders use a reversed Kepler telescope. To keep explanations simple, this is an (optical) improvement on the Galilean telescope, which produces an upside-down image. In camera viewfinders a prism is added to reverse the image so it is seen the right way up. This allows the path of the light to be folded (like in a set of binoculars) leading to a viewfinder that can fit the available space in the camera (as found in the tiny Canon Demi). The optical brightness and quality of a Keplerian finder is similar improved, in the same way that binoculars improve on a simple telescope.

Parallax errors and their correction

A parallax error results when an object is viewed along two different lines of sight, such as when the viewfinder is necessarily on a different axis to the camera lens (usually above and often to one side of the lens). The error varies with distance. It’s negligible for distant scenes, and very significant for close-up objects, leading to incorrect framing.

Correction of parallax error in telescopic viewfinders has been attempted in a number of ways. The simplest is a secondary set of frame-lines in a bright line finder, which show the edge of the region that will be included in the photograph at close focus. A more sophisticated solution is that the finder bright-lines mechanically adjust (reposition) according the camera lens focus adjustment. Another solution was to introduce a mechanism that adjusted the angle of a telescopic finder (this was not common).

Ground glass screens

This article would not be complete without a quick word about ground glass screens, which also function as viewfinders.

In reflex cameras, the subject is viewed via a mirror, which reflects the light from a lens onto a ground-glass focusing screen. The difference between single lens reflex (SLR) and a twin lens reflex (TLR) is that in the SLR camera, the mirror is moved immediately before exposure (to allow the light to be focussed onto the film), while in a TLR camera the mirror and focussing screen are permanently arranged as a viewfinder, and the photograph is made with a separate twin lens.

The simplest screen is viewed from above. This is called a waist-level finder. The view in these finders is reversed left-to-right. A fresnel lens (made of a number of concentric rings to diffuse light) is often placed on top of the focusing screen, to improve illumination of the corners of the screen.

This system – a ground glass viewfinder – was used in the earliest wet plate cameras, but without a mirror.

Prism Finders

In modern SLR cameras, the light passes through a pentaprism to provide eye-level finders. The pentaprism not only alters the path of the light, but also reverses the image so it can be seen in the correct orientation. Prism finders do not suffer from parallax errors, since the scene is viewed through and photographed via the same lens.

Of course, advancements in electronics have presented new viewfinder options, but these are beyond the scope of this article.